Glossary
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Glossary

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Term Definition
Hardness
Resistance to plastic deformation, usually measured by indentation.
Hardness, Brinell
The Brinell scale characterizes the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. It is one of several definitions of hardness in materials science.
Hardness, Rockwell
The Rockwell scale is a hardness scale based on the indentation hardness of a material. The Rockwell test determines the hardness by measuring the depth of penetration of an indenter under a large load compared to the penetration made by a preload. There are different scales, which are denoted by a single letter, that use different loads or indenters. The result, which is a dimensionless number, is noted by HRX where X is the scale letter.
Heat Treatment
Heating and cooling a solid metal or alloy in such a way as to obtain desired conditions or properties. Commonly used as a shop term to denote a thermal treatment to increase strength. Heating for the sole purpose of hot working is excluded from the meaning of this definition.
Heat-Exchanger Tube
A tube for use in apparatus in which fluid inside the tube will be heated or cooled by fluid outside the tube. The term usually is not applied to coiled tubes or to tubes for use in refrigerators or radiators.
Heat-Treat Stain
A discoloration due to oxidation of the metal surface during thermal treatment.
Heat-Treatable Alloy
An alloy which may be strengthened by a suitable thermal treatment.
Herringbone Streaks
Elongated alternate bright and dull markings at an angle to the rolling direction and having the appearance of a herringbone pattern.
Homogenizing
A high temperature soaking treatment to eliminate or reduce segregation by diffusion.
Hot Working
Plastic deformation of metal at such temperature and rate that strain hardening does not occur.
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