Glossary
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Glossary

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Term Definition
Abrasion

A surface discontinuity caused by roughening or scratching.

Age Hardening

A process of increasing the hardness and strength by the precipitation of particles of a phase from a supersaturated solid solution alloy. The hardening cycle usually consists of heating or annealing at a temperature sufficiently high to maintain solid solution, rapid cooling or quenching to retain the supersaturated solid solution, and subsequent heating at a temperature lower than the solution anneal to effect the precipitation.

Age Softening
The loss of strength and hardness at room temperature which takes place in certain alloys due to the spontaneous reduction of residual stresses in the strain hardened structure.
Aging
Precipitation from solid solution resulting in a change in properties of an alloy, usually occurring slowly at room temperature (natural aging) and more rapidly at elevated temperatures (artificial aging).
Alloy
An alloy is a combination, either in solution or chemical compound, of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. The resulting metallic substance usually has different properties (sometimes significantly different) from those of its components.
Aluminum Alloys
Aluminum alloys or aluminium alloys are alloys of aluminum, often with copper, zinc, manganese, silicon, or magnesium. They are much lighter and more corrosion resistant than plain carbon steel, but not quite as corrosion resistant as pure aluminum.
AMS
The abbreviation for "Aerospace Material Specification".
Angularity
Conformity to, or deviation from, specified angular dimensions in the cross section of a shape or bar.
Annealing
A thermal treatment to soften metal by removal of stress resulting from cold working or by coalescing precipitates from solid solution.
Anode
(1) In corrosion processes, usually the metal that has the greater tendency to dissolve. (2) In electroplating, the positive electrode used in a plating bath.
ANSI
Abbreviation for American National Standards Institute.
Anvil Effect
In an indentation hardness test, the bulge formed on the anvil side of the specimen which indicates that the hardness determination is of questionable accuracy.
Arbor
A cylindrical core around which metal is wound to obtain a desired inside diameter of the wound coil or roll.
Architectural Bronze

Area Reduction
The decrease in cross-section of a product by rolling or drawing. This is a measure of the temper of metal in the cold worked condition.
As-Extruded
A condition of a metal mill product resulting from hot extrusion; soft, not cleaned nor drawn or rolled to size.
As-Hot-Rolled
A condition of a metal mill product resulting from hot rolling; soft, not cleaned nor drawn or rolled to size.
ASTM
Abbreviation for the American Society for Testing Material.
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