Glossary
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Glossary

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Term Definition
Abrasion

A surface discontinuity caused by roughening or scratching.

Age Hardening

A process of increasing the hardness and strength by the precipitation of particles of a phase from a supersaturated solid solution alloy. The hardening cycle usually consists of heating or annealing at a temperature sufficiently high to maintain solid solution, rapid cooling or quenching to retain the supersaturated solid solution, and subsequent heating at a temperature lower than the solution anneal to effect the precipitation.

Age Softening
The loss of strength and hardness at room temperature which takes place in certain alloys due to the spontaneous reduction of residual stresses in the strain hardened structure.
Aging
Precipitation from solid solution resulting in a change in properties of an alloy, usually occurring slowly at room temperature (natural aging) and more rapidly at elevated temperatures (artificial aging).
Alloy
An alloy is a combination, either in solution or chemical compound, of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. The resulting metallic substance usually has different properties (sometimes significantly different) from those of its components.
Aluminum Alloys
Aluminum alloys or aluminium alloys are alloys of aluminum, often with copper, zinc, manganese, silicon, or magnesium. They are much lighter and more corrosion resistant than plain carbon steel, but not quite as corrosion resistant as pure aluminum.
AMS
The abbreviation for "Aerospace Material Specification".
Angularity
Conformity to, or deviation from, specified angular dimensions in the cross section of a shape or bar.
Annealing
A thermal treatment to soften metal by removal of stress resulting from cold working or by coalescing precipitates from solid solution.
Anode
(1) In corrosion processes, usually the metal that has the greater tendency to dissolve. (2) In electroplating, the positive electrode used in a plating bath.
ANSI
Abbreviation for American National Standards Institute.
Anvil Effect
In an indentation hardness test, the bulge formed on the anvil side of the specimen which indicates that the hardness determination is of questionable accuracy.
Arbor
A cylindrical core around which metal is wound to obtain a desired inside diameter of the wound coil or roll.
Architectural Bronze

Area Reduction
The decrease in cross-section of a product by rolling or drawing. This is a measure of the temper of metal in the cold worked condition.
As-Extruded
A condition of a metal mill product resulting from hot extrusion; soft, not cleaned nor drawn or rolled to size.
As-Hot-Rolled
A condition of a metal mill product resulting from hot rolling; soft, not cleaned nor drawn or rolled to size.
ASTM
Abbreviation for the American Society for Testing Material.
Beryllium copper

Billet
A hot-worked semifinished product suitable for subsequent working by such methods as rolling, forging, extruding, etc.
Blank
A piece from any wrought product intended for subsequent fabrication by such operations as forming, bending, cupping, drawing, hot pressing.
Blanking
The process of cutting metal blanks by a die and punch set in a press, or by sawing or shearing.
Blister
A raised spot on the surface of the metal caused by expansion of gas in subsurface zone during thermal treatment.
Block Marks
Short longitudinal scratches introduced during rewinding of sheet or foil, resulting from relative movement between adjacent wraps of the coil.
Bloom
A semifinished hot rolled product, rectangular or square in cross section produced on a blooming mill.
BMS

Bottom Draft
Taper or slope in the bottom of a forged depression to assist the flow of metal toward the sides of the depressed area.
Bow
Longitudinal curvature of rod, bar, shapes, and tube.
Brass
Any copper alloy with zinc as the principal alloying element, with or without small quantities of some other elements.
Brazing
A joining process wherein coalescence is produced by heating to suitable temperatures above 800 F. and by using a non-ferrous filler metal having a melting point below that of the base metals. The filler metal is distributed between the closely fitted surfaces of the joint by capillary attraction.
Brazing Rod
A rolled, extruded, or cast round filler metal for use in joining by brazing.
Brazing Sheet
Sheet of a brazing alloy or sheet clad with a brazing alloy on one or both sides.
Brazing Wire
Wire for use as a filler metal in joining by brazing.
Bright Annealing
Annealing in an atmosphere controlled to prevent surface discoloration and maintain a bright finish.
Broken Edge
Edge containing cracks, splits, or tears.
Broken Surface
A surface having innumerable minute cracks running normal to the direction of working.
Bronze
Originally a term for copper alloys having tin as the only or principal alloying element. In modern usage the term "Bronze" is seldom used alone, and the terms "Phosphor Bronze" or "Tin Bronze" is used for indicating copper-tin alloys. In fact, the term "Bronze," together with a suitable modifying adjective has in recent years been extended to apply to any of a great variety of copper alloys.
Buck
A device on which flat wire and strip are wound to facilitate handling and shipping.
Buckle
A distortion of the surface of sheet such as a bulge or a wave, usually transverse to the direction of rolling.
Buffing
A mechanical finishing operation in which fine abrasives are applied to a metal surface by rotating fabric wheels for the purpose of developing a lustrous finish.
Burnishing
A fabrication method of securing a smooth finished surface by slight deformation with highly polished tools.
Burr
A thin ridge of roughness left by a cutting operation such as slitting, trimming, shearing, blanking, sawing, etc.
Burred Edge
A thin turned down edge on sheet or foil resulting from shearing.
Bursting Pressure
The internal pressure required to burst tubes or other hollow products.
Bus Bar
A bus conductor of rectangular or square cross section of any dimension.
Cartridge Brass

Casting
An article formed by solidification of molten metal in a mold.
Cathode
In corrosion processes, usually the metal that is not corroded.
Cathodic Protection
Reduction or prevention of corrosion of a metal surface by making it a cathode, for example by the use of sacrificial anodes or impressed currents.
CDA
Abbreviation for Copper Development Association Inc.
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